Cyber Threats, Harsh Environment and the European High North (EHN) in a Human Security and Multi-Level Regulatory Global Dimension: Which Framework Applicable to Critical Infrastructures under “Exceptionally Critical Infrastructure Conditions” (ECIC)?
Sandra Cassotta, Roman Sidortsov, Christer Pursiainen and Michael Evan Goodsite
Business opportunities in the European High North (EHN) are accompanied by the danger of cyber-threats, especially to critical infrastructures which in these Arctic regions become “extra critical” because of the harsh environmental climatic conditions and remoteness of distances. Critical infrastructures (CI) in the EHN are crucial for numerous sectors, such as the energy sector which is completely depended on digitalization, internet and computers’ commands. Such a new condition of extra criticality should also include human security concerns to avoid human disasters. An effective legal framework under “exceptionally critically infrastructure conditions” (ECIC) for this technology is important not only in terms of national legislation, but also in view of a regional, international and global networks character. This paper links for the first time, law, internet and cybersecurity, environment and society in a global human security dimension in a multi-regulatory contextual analysis.
The aim is to trace the legal framework for response to a cyber-attack to critical infrastructure in the energy sector and takes Norway as a case study because this country is highly dependent on cyber technology and on critical infrastructures. The question of research is: using a human security focus in the case of cyber-threats under ECIC in the EHN, what ways can an assessment recommend to improve international , and regional law? Five analytical tasks are undertaken: 1) the concept of critical infrastructure vulnerability to cyber-attacks under “exceptionally critically infrastructure conditions” (ECIC) in the EHN with focus on the energy sector is explained in connection to the notion of human security, 2) a backdrop of regional and international collaboration is followed, 3) a trajectory of multilevel contextual analysis of the different sources of law and policy applicable to cyber-threats to CI is outlined, and 4) an examination of cooperation under the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
This paper is a deliverable of the ECoHuCy Research Project supported by NordForsk – organization under the Nordic Council of Ministers. ISDP is one of four other Project Partners behind this consortium grant. Led by Sandra Cassotta, ISDP is administering “Working Package Four” on Climate Change, Environmental Threats and Cybersecurity.
The AI Race: Collaboration to Counter Chinese Aggression
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to replace humans, as it can help overcome language barriers, improve governance, deliver better healthcare, and create art. However, AI also has the potential […]
Japan’s Multi-Domain Defense Force: The Space, Cyber, and Electromagnetic Domains
This article sheds light on Japan’s “Multi-Domain Defense Force” formulated in the National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG) as well as the Medium Term Defense Program (MTDP) (FY2019-FY2023) approved by the […]
The Next Generation Problem: The Ups and Downs of Sweden’s Huawei Ban
Abstract After months of pending legal challenges, Sweden proceeded with the long-delayed 5G-frequency auctions in January this year, finally allowing Swedish telecom providers to continue the 5G-rollout; however, still without […]
China’s Cybersecurity Legislation: A Paper Tiger or an Institutionalized Theft?
China’s digitalization drive has become a key force for the country’s economic growth and transformation, opening new opportunities for Chinese companies internationally. The booming digital economy, which has increased the […]